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[sticky post] The Scrapbook of one Russian.

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There are 5 letters in Russian that look and sound the same as in English.

Letter Name Sound Russian English
А А А Анталия

К Ка К Кремль

М Эм М Москва

О О О Ольга

Т Тэ T Том

Now go to: " There are 9 letters of Russian alphabet that look strange but have a familiar sound "

А ну-ка, -ка.

Is there any meaning for ка in these sentences?
1- Смотри-ка, твоя мама пришла.
2- Ну-ка открой ротик.

This is interjection that used with verbs in imperative mood to quikcly draw attention of some one to take an action in a very loving way. It was used a lot in old russian language: tales, epics ets.

Собирайся-ка и ты в путь-дороженьку.
Also you get your-self a minute-ready for a good way-road.

We still use it with kids or dear people in a sweet way. It's like hey in English.

А ну-ка, посмотри кто пришел!
Посмотри-ка, кто пришел!
Hey, look who is comming here!

Sometimes it is used with others in a persuading situation. It's been mean.

А ну-ка, убери свой чемоданчик!
Hey, get your suitcase out! ( in a train)

А ну-ка, перестань так выражаться!
Hey, stop talking like that!

There are two words for translating one English word TRUTH.

There are two words for translating one English word TRUTH: правда & истина. So, what is the difference?
People would say today that Истина is from God and Правда is from humanbeens and is a personal opinion of each one. However it hadn't been this way before the revolution. At those times things were inreverse opposite - Правда was of God and Истина was the creation of humans. Here are some of the expressions to be compared.

The old time expressions

Истин много, а правда одна.
Прописные истины.
Правдивые истины.
Бывает полная, неполная, относительная, субъективная, объективная и даже истинная правда. :-) но она всегда одна.
Правда от Бога, а истины от человеков.

The new time expressions

Истина от Бога, а правда у каждого - своя.
Народная правда.
There was a newspaper called Правда.
Статистическая правда.
Кому нужна эта правда?

Выбирать и Избирать

Could you, please, what is the difference between these two verbs?

If possible, please, explain in English or Spanish.

Prefixes ИЗ and ВЫ have the meaning = out from inside.

Брать = to take.

Though из has a stronger meaning closer to someting more stable or even permanent.

You can see the diference with other word гнать - chase

Выгнать is to get somebody out from the room for sometime.
Изгнать is to cast somebody out from the society, country... forever or for a long period of time.

Выбор (choice) is a decision but you can change at any time if you like something better.
Избранное is not just chosen but also appointed to play the main role for a certain period of time.

Выбранный путь (до школы, жизни) - chosen way (to school, for living).
Избранный путь (жизни) - chosen way (for living) as the main purpose for one's life.

Выбирают друзей или директора - you can choose a friend or the director.
Избирают директора (director gets elected in some companies)

However these two prefixes have some other meaning that aren't connected to this subject.

Как правильно сказать "Я гуляю в парке" или "Я гуляю по парку" ?

Гулять в парке или по парку
Если говорим о месте нахождения, а не о самом действии, то правильно будет (где?) - в парке.
When speaking about place we are in, but not action it-self, we are using "in" the park, as we answer the question.

But if speaking about action that you are taking, then use по парку.

Cлово "гулять" может (хотя и не обязательно) подразумевать остановки.
The word "гулять" can (though not nesseseryly) mean to go with a stops.

Я иду, гуляю по парку с ребенком. В данном случае, я говорю о действии. Мы движемся куда-то.
I am strolling walking in the park with my child. I speak about an action in this case. We are mooving somewhere.

Мы подошли к детской площадке и ребенок заигрался.
We came to a kinderplay and the child've got it's play off.

Мне звонят и я скажу "я гуляю с Никитой в парке".
I been phoned at the same time, so I'd say "I am been with Nekit in the park".

Потому что в данный момент я стою, а ребенок играет и мы не движемся никуда.
Because in the same moment I am standing there and the child is playing and we aren't mooving anywhere.

Мы не говорим "я иду в парке", потому что глагол идти подразумевает движение и только движение.
We don't say "я иду в парке", because the verb идти (to go) means moovement and only a moovement.

А глагол гулять, кроме нахождения на улице, подразумевает еще и хаотическое перемещение вне цели, остановки подышать воздухом, и даже полюбоваться природой, сидя на лавочке.
And the verb гулять, accept the meaning of appirence outside, has the meaning to wonder around with no goal, making a stops just to breath the air, or even marvell at the nature sitting on the bench.

Поэтому в данном случае, правильность выбора зависит от говорящего, вернее от контекста.
This all means that the right choise deped on a speaker, or on the context to be more exact.

Если под словом "гулять" он подразумевает движение через парк в спорт зал, то "по парку",
So if the speaker just walking through the park to the sport-gallery, you'll say "по парку",
а если он коротает в парке время до тренировки, например, то можно сказать и "в парке".
but if just trying to spend the time before the gym, you use "в парке".

Словарная статься по теме (dicsionary):

Гулять `Толковый словарь Кузнецова` гулять ГУЛЯ́ТЬ -я́ю, -я́ешь; гуля́я и (разг.) гуля́ючи; нсв. 1. Совершать прогулку пешком; проводить время на свежем воздухе. Гулять около дома. Гулять в парке, во дворе. Гулять на набережной, на бульваре, на улице. Г. по городу, по лесу. Г. вдоль Невы, вдоль залива. Пойдём г. Г. с ребёнком, с собакой (прогуливать кого-л.). // Бесцельно бродить, скитаться. Г. по свету. Г. по коридорам, по дому.

How to use "почти такой же"?


In what circumstance do people use the aforementioned phrase? I would appreciate if someone could present me with some examples.
Спасибо :)


почти такой же = almost the same, pretty much a like.

Почти такой же случай произошел со мной.
Almost the same situation has hapened to me.

Она была почти такой же, даже много лет спустя.
She was pretty much alike even many years later.

У этой машины почти такой же цвет, как и у той.
This car is almost the same color as that one.

1. Reading rules. Vowels. Consonants. STRESS.

Reading rules. You don’t have to follow all of them. You will be understood even if you'll read words literally as they are written. Russian words may seem to be quite complicated to pronounce.  However, if you try to learn reading rules it will make it much easier for you.

Russian alphabet numbers 33 letters including 2 signs Ъ and  Ь that do not appoint any sounds.

There are 10 vowels that can be pared in couples:

А  О  У  Ы  Э

Я  Ё  Ю  И  Е

Those special vowels that are only in Russian Я, Ё, Ю, Е actually assign two sounds each. We call them jotted vowels.

Я = йА (ja)

Ё = йО (jo)

Ю = йУ (ju)

Е = йЭ (je)

Russian language is a consonant language. We don’t have semi hard sounds like in English. There are only hard (alphabetic) sounds and soft once that are made with certain position and signs.

3 hard cosonants:

Ж, Ш, Ц

3 soft consonants:

Й, Ч, Щ

15 consonants that give us 2 sounds each

hard: Б  В  Г  Д  З  К  Л  М  Н  П  Р С  Т  Ф  Х

soft : Б’ B’ Г’  Д’ З’ К’ Л’  М’ Н’ П’ Р’ С’ Т’ Ф’ Х’

The hard sounds assigned by regular alphabet letters.

They become soft only when influenced by other letters:

  1. Ь will make previous consonant soft.


  1. й-sound in jotted letters will make previous consonant soft:

Оля, Люда, река, Серёжа ;

  1. и-sound will make previous consonant soft:

люди ;

   4. any soft consonant make previous consonant soft.


Please note, that Ь and Ъ signs in the middle of the words play a dividing role.

Биль-ярд, Ульяна, Татьяна.


As in English, Russian words are pronounced with the stress on certain syllables. However, Russian words never have more than one stressed syllable. For example, the long Russian word for good bye is «до свидания». There is only one syllable that is stressed and the other ones are unstressed. In Russian the stressed syllable will always stand out and the vowel will remain unchanged whereas other vowels in the word may sound different.

До свидания


Good bye!

Замок – замок

замок – замак

lock – castle

Писать - писать

писать - писать

write - pee

If a word has only one syllable the stress will fall on the only vowel it has. If a word contains the letter ё the stress is always on the ё regardless of the number of syllables;


Пай-дём !

Let’s go!

Married couple is going for shopping. Husband says to his wife "Я расплачУсь" (I'll pay).

Two hours later at the cashier he says: "It seems I've put the emphasis wrong..." (because "Я расплАчусь" means I'll burst into tears).

Vowels in unstressed positions

Vowels in unstressed syllables are pronounced shorter (or have a reduced value) and some of them can vary in sound (or change their quality).

A is easier to pronounce then O,

Э is easier to pronounce then Е,

ЙИ is easier to pronounce then Я.

This is the reason for О, E, Я reduction in unstressed position.

И   Е   О  Я  

Ы   Э   А  ЙИ

До свидания


Good bye!

Доброе утро!

добраэ утра

Good morning!

Как жизнь?

Как жыз`н` ?

How is life?







Married couple went for shopping. Husband says to his wife:
"Я расплач
у́сь" (I'll pay).

Two houres later at the cashier he remarkes "It seems I've put the emphasis wrong..." .

P.S. :
распла́чусь" means I'll burst into tears.

Now you can go to: "Reductions of vowels in Russian"

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